Concrete needs stability to cure properly, and proper curing will give it the strength it needs to withstand the pressures it will face.
Engineers have designed a variety of forms as the solution to create stable curing environments.
Each project will require proper form selection, installation, and form removal for the strongest concrete structures.
Let’s first get our bearings on concrete forms and the different types available to us.
Concrete formwork, also known as shuttering, requires solid molds to hold liquid concrete in place until it cures.
These forms are necessary to shape and strengthen the concrete. Without a form, the concrete would just end up in one big mound of hardened liquid with no real shape or use.
Contractors have a choice to make when building concrete structures.
Which type of concrete form best suits the project?
Each of these eight forms has its uses, limitations, pros, and cons.
Wood forms are the most conventional type. The materials are readily available, and most contractors know the process.
To create a wooden form, wooden boards are nailed together into the desired shape. Wooden stakes are added at precise locations to help bear the weight of the concrete.
Experts recommend using boards less than six inches wide for wood forms as larger boards tend to warp.
The limitations of wood forms stem from the fact that most wooden boards aren’t strong enough to hold large amounts of concrete and cannot be used for heavy concrete construction.
ICFs are hollow blocks of insulation with steel reinforcement cages built into the form.
The concrete mix is poured and sandwiched by the insulation. These forms are permanent and never removed.
You don’t have to worry about timing or proper formwork removal with ICFs because they stay put, and the concrete will dry and strengthen with little to no adverse effects from exterior conditions.
Steel forms are the strongest type of concrete form, and you can reuse them multiple times. These forms are the most popular option for large industrial structures.
Another benefit steel forms offer is that they won’t absorb the water from the curing concrete. This hydration must evaporate from the concrete at the right speed for maximum strength.
Steel forms also present a lower risk of error after removal.
Concrete wall forms are pre-manufactured forms made from wood, steel, or both, all connected with anchors. This method is often used to build large and often intricate industrial structures.
Some require the use of cranes to install, while others are designed to be fast-paced and modular for easy setup and take-down.
A decorative concrete form is used to create an artistic relief through the use of negative space as the concrete dries.
Here are some things to consider when choosing your form:
Based on these factors, you can make a more informed decision. As already stated, larger projects require the use of steel forms, while wood can be used for smaller projects.
Steel is cleaner than wood, resulting in fewer bug holes in the finished product.
Wood is best for low-height structures, and steel is best for high structures where concrete can buckle under its own weight.
Of course, steel is more costly, so it’s best to reserve this form for when you need it.
The amount of time you should wait before removing your concrete forms is different for every project.
Here are some of the factors that affect curing times:
Let’s discuss these factors:
Frozen concrete will not dry, so if you are working in extremely cold weather, the curing process will take longer.
Rain also affects drying time, especially during the first few days when the air is still moist.
Heat aids the curing of concrete, but extreme heat can cause cracking. This can be prevented by using tarps or barriers to trap moisture.
Different types of concrete have varying drying times and reactions to outside factors.
There are five basic types of cement:
Each of these categories has subcategories with different uses and drying times.
The grade of cement used also affects drying times. We’ll discuss this more in the next section.
Larger sections gain strength faster due to the compaction of the weight of the concrete itself.
The removal of concrete forms is known as “striking-off” or “stripping off” the forms.
According to the American Concrete Institute (ACI 308), the drying times for each type of concrete are as follows:
According to the rules for Ordinary Portland Cement, these are the average drying times of various types of structures:
Time is a critical issue in the construction process. If you are pressed for time, there are a few ways to speed up the drying process.
Here are some ideas:
Let’s talk about these ideas:
Admixtures can be created by adding certain chemicals or additives to the cement mixture to speed up the drying times.
Calcium chloride and silica fume are two such additives.
When weather conditions are causing an issue, you can use weather-resistant barriers to speed up the concrete drying process.
Plastic sheeting is good for trapping moisture when the temperature is high and protecting the form from rain.
Insulation blankets help to prevent freezing when the temperature drops.
If the air is overly humid, dehumidification can also aid the drying process.
Desiccant dehumidifiers use a chemical reaction to draw moisture out of the air. This is best for use in an enclosed area where the chemicals won’t dissipate in the surrounding air.
Condensation dehumidifiers cool the air to drop the dew point, then soak up the humidity from that process.
Not only is timing critical in formwork removal, but the proper techniques should be used to maintain the structure’s integrity.
Learning formwork removal is easier when you understand some common but detrimental mistakes — and avoid those at all costs.
Here are a few common mistakes that you should avoid in your removal process:
When you jump the gun and remove your forms too early, you will not be pleased with the results.
Your structure can slump to one side or bulge at the bottom. Multiple cracks can occur because it is not ready to bear the weight of the concrete on top.
Worse still, the structure can collapse due to multiple factors weakening the project’s structural integrity.
Concrete forms are a crucial part of the concrete construction process, and the information in this guide will ensure that proper formwork is used.
With the use of proper formwork, projects will go much more smoothly. There will be no need to repair or redo any structures with new concrete.
This will save money and reduce the amount of time it takes to complete a project, keeping you within budget and on schedule.